ELDER COTTAGE HOUSING OPPORTUNITY (ECHO) UNITS: Small, free-standing, barrier-free, energy-efficient, and removable units designed to be installed adjacent to existing single-family dwellings.

ELDERLY PERSON HOUSEHOLD: A household composed of one or more persons at least one of whom is 62 years of age or more at the time of initial occupancy.

ELIST: Electronic mailing list (eList) available from HUD USER to assist in disseminating research information, and to encourage subscribers to share information and exchange ideas with one another.

EMERGENCY EXCEPTION PAYMENT STANDARDS: HUD regulations enable public housing agencies to request emergency exception payment standards outside the “basic range” of 90 to 110 percent of the Fair Market Rent (FMR). These emergency exception payment standards are typically used to accommodate cases in which the prevailing rents in part of the FMR area are significantly more or less than the FMRs for the entire area.

EMERGENCY SHELTER any facility, the primary purpose of which is to provide temporary or transitional shelter for the homeless in general or for specific populations of the homeless.

EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANT (ESG) PROGRAM: A federal CPD program grant designed to help improve the quality of existing emergency shelters for the homeless, to make additional shelters available, to meet the costs of operating shelters, to provide essential social services to homeless individuals, and to help prevent homelessness. ESG also provides short-term homeless prevention assistance to persons at imminent risk of losing their own housing due to eviction, foreclosure, or utility shutoffs.

EMINENT DOMAIN: An exercise of the power of government or quasi-government agencies (such as airport authorities, highway commissions, community development agencies, and utility companies) to take private property for public use.

EMPOWERMENT ZONES (EZ): Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities are part of The Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities (EZ/EC) program. The Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities (EZ/EC) program was designed by the federal government to encourage comprehensive planning and investment aimed at the economic, physical, and social development of the neediest urban and rural areas in the United States. Under the initial round of funding announced in December 1994, 71 urban sites received EZ/EC designation. The major share of the federal funding went to the six sites designated as Empowerment Zones (EZs) and the remaining funds went to Enterprise Communities (ECs). Although considerable latitude has been afforded to these sites regarding the selection of specific strategies and activities to pursue, each funded community's efforts at zone transformation were expected to reflect four key principles: (1) economic opportunity; (2) community-based partnerships; (3) sustainable community development; and (4) a strategic vision for change.

ENERGY AUDIT: Any process that identifies and specifies the energy and cost savings likely to be realized through the purchase and installation of particular energy efficiency measures or renewable energy measures.

ENERGY PERFORMANCE CONTRACTING (EPC): an innovative financing technique that uses cost savings from reduced energy consumption to repay the cost of installing energy conservation measures.

ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES (EC): See Empowerment Zones (EZ).

EQUITABLE LAND USE PLANNING: zoning, land use regulation, master planning, and other land use planning that, at a minimum, furthers the purposes of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Fair Housing Act and are intended to achieve additional objectives for expanding housing choice. (p.11)


EVICTION: The dispossession of the tenant from the leased unit as a result of the termination of tenancy, including a termination prior to the end of a lease term.

EXTENT OF HOUSING OVERCROWDING: The number of housing units with 1.01 or more persons per room based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time.

EXTREMELY LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS: Those with incomes below 30 percent of area median income. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) programs use “area median incomes” calculated on the basis of local family incomes, with adjustments for household size.


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